Lapset kertovat - logo

A Penguin Story from a narratological point of view

Projects Members Publications The Storycrafting method Seminar

A Penguin Story from a narratological point of view

Kaisu Rättyä

One of the most noticeable features of the children's own stories, collected between 1995 and 1997 in Finland, is the vast array of characters they include. Children bring a wide spectrum of animals, objects and persons to their stories. Because of the nature of the stories, current literary theories of characterisation need modification to provide us with any insight into the construction of characters. The stories are short and spontaneous; their presentation of characters is very different from lengthy written texts, while the theories discuss such features as development of characters or the psychological life of the characters. To make these theories relevant to the stories requires addition of other new ideas. In my study, I focus on different kinds of narration in 87 narratives of children, for example the usage of speech, speech acts and metafiction.

My aim and material

Today, my aim is to describe how a child tells about a character and it's relationships in one narrative. My emphasis lies here on the plot and the speech. As an example material, I use one story, 'A Penguin Story', that a 5-year-old Finnish child told within a project called Storyride .

Approaches

I am going to read the narrative with you with eyes focused
1) Firstly on the story level: existents (characters and setting) and events, the main three episodes
2) Secondly, on discourse: mostly the usage of adjectives and pronouns,
3) Thirdly: on direct and indirect speech and speech acts

The narrative, which I analyse here, is the following:

Once upon a time there was a penguin
and it went for a swim in the morning.
It noticed that the water was cold.
It went to drink the hot chocolate which mother had made.
It went to play with some friends.
The friends played together, they didn't want to play with her/him. S/He went home to play alone.
Then when s/he had played
s/he went again to try the water to see if it possible to swim in. Then s/he noticed again that the water was cold.
So s/he went to play alone again.
Then when s/he had played
s/he drank mother's chocolate again.
Then s/he went to look at the ice sheet
how all the other penguins swam two by two.
Then when all the other penguins said come you too and swim with us s/he said I think it is chilly.
Then it went inside to do something with the baby.

1) Story: existents and events

As in over half of the narratives in my corpus, the main character here is an animal. This is the only one among the narratives, which tells about penguins. In the Finnish text, the gender of the protagonist, other penguins and the baby is not specified. The Finnish language does not distinguish between masculine and feminine in the third person singular: the pronoun 'hän' refers to both 'he' and 'she'.

Mother, other penguins and a baby create the social field for the penguin. This kind of cast is usual in the narratives of children. Rather often the relations between characters are depicted with dichotomies like little and big, or for example the baby rabbit and the big rabbit. Mother and the other penguins build a comparable dichotomy for the setting: inside and outside, home and by the water and glacier.

Because the direct characterisation of the penguin is minimal and it's appearance or habits are not described explicitly, I look at the personality of the penguin another way. The characteristics of the penguin can be found in actions on the plot level and in penguin's sayings.

According to the hierarchy of actions, one way to paraphrase the plot could be the following. The main episodes are
1) Desire to swim - penguin's own decision not to swim,
2) Desire to play with other penguins - other's decision not to play
And finally
3) Desire to swim and play - other's invitation and own decision not to swim but to do something with the baby.

Decisions not to swim and to play alone are repeated twice before the climax.
The dramatic conflict is placed in the last episode in which the others ask the penguin along and it refuses to joint them. Furthermore, the opponents in the story become helpers.

2) Discourse: Descriptive meanings

In children's narratives the amount of descriptive chapters or meanings are minimal like the whole narrative can be a minimal one. Still, the depicting words have a meaning in the whole. The narrative of the penguin has a couple of describing adjectives, namely cold and hot, which become interesting when we notice what is told in the dialogue.

3) Speech

The usage of speech is not frequent in the penguin story. The penguin directly interacts only with the other penguins, not with the narratee or implied reader . The character's speech act is placed only on the climax of the story.

The change of adjectives is placed also in this climax point. In the beginning, the character's notion of the temperature of the water is that it is cold. The water gets contrast with the hot chocolate mother had done. The coldness of the water is emphasised like the repeated testing of the water and playing alone. After the other's approval, the water becomes chilly. In Finnish, the adjective 'vilpoisaa' has a kind of a poetic sound and it can be interpreted both as 'cooling' and as 'fresh'. The observations are done from the penguin's point of view (It noticed that the water was cold. - It went to drink hot chocolate). The answer "I think it is chilly" emphasises and strengthens the penguin's opinion.

Similarly, the shift of pronouns is situated after the climax. In the beginning, the author uses the personal pronoun 'it' to refer to the penguin. It changes when the other penguins deny play with her/him. After the climax the pronoun 's/he' replaces the pronoun 'it' until the invitation is posed to the penguin as come you too and the penguin's answer is a direct speech with the pronoun 'I'. Then the author returns to use of 'it'.

The first communication with the penguins is narrated with free style. The communication is not cited; we do not know how the other's denial is actually presented. The denial is narrated as a summary of actions. We do neither know who began that discussion. In the second verbal contact, we can follow the turns of the discussion. Though the penguin is active with it's doings, it does not take the initiative to speak to the others. They make the initiative here; they begin the conversation. Therefore the penguin has the power to decide if it comes with them or not.

The invitation is presented as a direct question and the penguin's answer is similarly a direct answer. These direct speeches are both tagged with neutral verb 'said'. The utterance of the penguin is though and indirect speech act because the penguin does not refuse by saying: no, I don't (want to come). The utterance implies refusal with words that characterise the temperature of the water and the chilliness of it.
Finally, if the main episodes of the narrative is desire to swim and desire to play with the other, the conclusion and problem is solved with the help of the baby, or at least a possible solution is served in the end. After the indirect speech act, the penguin chooses the company of the baby; but the penguin does not go to play or swim with it. Instead, they are going to do something inside. Word 'something' gives an open possibility for them, the doing is not specified. Earlier in the story, the inside is combined with two things. The first one is to play alone, and the second one is - after the cold water - the company of mother and mother's warm chocolate. For the penguin, 'something' may mean the first or the second one or something else.

Notes:
1 The purpose of the Storyride project is
 - to build up a network for children in Finland and other Nordic countries
 - to make children and children's story culture visible and give the floor to children's own storytelling culture,
 - to give adults possibility to listen to children's ideas and initiatives and provide a new listening method, to develop quality in play and teaching in pre school and early education.
The research around Storyride project focuses on the storytelling culture of children and its impact on the relationships between children and adults in child-care institutions (see Karlsson 1996).

2 In most of the narratives, children vary the use of character types. Over 50 different protagonists are used in those 87 narratives; most of them appear only once. The most common animals are a dog (featured in only 7 of the 87 narratives), a mouse (5/87), a bear (4/97) and a rabbit (4/87).

3 Another dichotomy is singular (penguin) and plural (other penguins).

4 (I base my reading of the plot on narratological theories and for example Roland Barthes' and Seymour Chatman's notion about main and secondary actions, satellites and kernels.)

5 (on the syntagmatic level)

6 In it's simplest form, description is a nominal phrase for example 'a beautiful flower'. But the perhaps more frequent use of the term description is as longer descriptive passages, as for example Seymour Chatman use. Description can have two functions 1) to interrupt action or 2) to lift up important elements for interpretation (Hamon 1988). Even the name can be taken as descriptive.

7 Which also can be done in children's own narratives. For example in a comment to the implied audience: "Guess what one Miia and Melik have done?" in the story 9703ku2y.jh.

Litterature

Applebee, Arthur N. 1978 The Child's Concept of Story. Chicago and London:
The University of Chicago Press.

Bal, Mieke 1997 Narratology: Introduction to the theory. Andra upplagan. Toronto, Buffalo, London: Universit of Toronto Press.

Chatman, Seymour 1990 Coming to terms. The rhetoric of narrative in fiction and film. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

Chatman, Seymour 1978/1980 Stroy and discourse. Narrative structure in fiction and film. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

Christensen, Inger 1981 The meaning of metafiction: A critical study of selected novels by Sterne, Nabokov and Beckett. Bergen: Universitetsforlaget.

Eriksson, Mats 1997 Ungdomars berättande. En studie i struktur och interaktion. Uppsala: Institutionen för nordiska språk vid Uppsala universitet.

Fox, Carol 1993 At the Very Edge of the Forest. The Influence of Literature on Storytelling by Children. London and New York: Cassell.

Genette, Gérard 1972/1995 Narrative discourse. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. Översättning av "Discours du récit" i Figures III (1972).

Genette, Gérard 1983/1990 Narrative discourse revisited. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. Översättning av Nouveau discours du récit (1983).

Golden, Joanne M. 1990 The narrative symbol in childhood literature. Explorations in the construction of text. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Hamon, Philippe 1972/1988 "What is a description?" i French literary theory today. A reader (red. Tzvetan Todorov). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. S. 147-178. Reviderad version av "Qu'est-ce qu'une description?" Poétique, 12: 1972, 465-487.

Hutcheon, Linda 1980 Narcissistic narrative: the metafictional paradox. Waterloo: Wilfred Laurier University Press.

Hutcheon, Linda 1988 A poetics of postmodernism. History, theory, fiction. New York and London: Routledge.

Hutcheon, Linda 1985 A theory of parody. The teachings of twentieth-century art forms. New York and London: Methuen.

Jansson, Bo 19? Självironi, självspegling och självreflexion: den metafiktiva tendensen i Eyvind Johnsons diktining.

Keskinen, Mikko 1998 Response, resistance, deconstruction. Reading and writing in/of three novels by John Updike. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä.

Koskimaa, Raine 1998 Seksiä, suhteita ja murha. Saksalaisia ja suomalaisia tulkintoja Rosa Liksomin kertomuksesta. [Sex, förhållande och mord. Tyska och finska tolkningar av Rosa Liksoms berättelse.] Jyväskylä: Nykykulttuurin tutkimusyksikkö.

Kovala, Urpo 1998 Anchorages of meaning. A contextual approach to literary meaning production. (Manuskript för avhandling)

Myllylä, Heidi (1998) Lapsiryhmä sadunkertojana - toiminnan organisoitumisen tarkastelua. [Barngrupp som sagoberättare - betraktelse av verksamhetorganisering.] Otyrckt pro gradu-arbete. Uleåborgs universitet.

Nikolajeva, Maria 1996 Children's literature comes of age. Towards a new aesthetic. New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc.

Nikolajeva, Maria 1998 Barnbokens byggklossar. Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Olsson, Ulf 1988 I det lysande mörkert. En läsning av Birgitta Trotzigs De utsatta. Stockholm: Bonniers.

Prince, Gerald 1982 Narratology. The form and functioning of narrative. Berlin, New York, Amsterdam: Mouton Publishers.

Riihelä, Monika 1996 Mitä teemme lasten kysymyksille? Stakes raportteja.

Rimmon-Kenan, Shlomith 1983/1991 Kertomuksen poetiikkaa. SKS: Helsinki. Översättning av Narrative fiction: contemporary poetics (1983).

Rutanen Niina 1997 Lasten omat kertomukset. [Barns egna berättelser] Pro gradu-arbete. Uleåborgs universitet.

Rättyä, Kaisu 1999 "Presentationen av karaktärer i barns egna berättelser" i Palmenfelt, Ulf [red.]. Barnkulturforskning i Norden, del 2: Aspekter på narrativitet. Åbo.

Stephens, John 1992 Language and ideology in children's fiction. London: Longman.

Sutton-Smith, Brian 1981 The Folkstories of Children. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Tammi, Pekka 1992 Kertova teksti. Esseitä narratologiasta. [Den berättande texten. Esseer om narratologi,] Gaudeamus: Jyväskylä.

Vainikkala, Erkki 1983 "Kertomuksen rakenne ja tulkinta". [Struktur och tolkning av berättelsen] I Kirjallisuudentutkijain Seuran vuosikirja 35. Helsinki: SKS.

Vainikkala, Erkki 1993 Oppinut taikina. Kirjoituksia kirjallisuuden teoriasta, kielestä ja kulttuurista. [Den lärda degen. Skrifter om litteraturteori, språk och kultur.] Jyväskylä: JYY.

Wall, Barbara 1991 The Narrator's Voice: The Dilemma of Children's Literature. London: Macmillan.

Waugh, Patricia 1984 Metafiction. The theory and practice of self-conscious fiction.


To the top

To the beginning of the children are telling pages


Contact person: